The history of the town dates back to the Early Middle Ages, when Casimir II the Just (Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy) gave a village of Wietrzna Góra to the Norbertine female convent around 1181. The grateful nuns renamed the village to Kazimierz. Its location at the junction of the North - South and East - West important trade routes contributed to its development. Since 1325, Kazimierz has had its parish, and during the reign of King Casimir the Great it also gained the castle which greatly increased its defensive potential. The King granted it town status and numerous privileges. The golden era of Kazimierz started together with the development of river trade, at the beginning of the 16th century. High demand for Polish cereal in Western Europe led to the development of ports along the Vistula where grain was delivered from folwarks (serfdom-based farms) owned by rich merchant families: Przybyło, Celej, and Górski. The most beautiful Kazimierz architectural buildings also come from that period, such as: the Parish Church Fara, the Franciscan Monastery, the tenement houses and granaries with richly ornamented facades. The Swedish Deluge and subsequent wars led to the destruction of the town, and the partitions of Poland put an end to the Vistula river trade - the source of wealth for the citizens. In 1869 Kazimierz was deprived city rights by the Russians as a punishment for its patriotic stand during the 19th century independence uprisings. Since the First World War ended, the town has, to a greater or lesser degree, become a summer resort town visited by painters and literary figures. Maria Kuncewiczowa, a writer and Tadeusz Pruszkowski, Professor of Fine Arts have built their houses here, as well as one of the most talented students of Professor Pruszkowski – Antoni Michalak. After the destructions caused by the Second World War, the town was rebuilt according to the projects of Karol Siciński and today the place attracts thousands of tourists with its beautiful landscapes and the unique atmosphere.